● Achievement and aptitude tests o Seen in educational or employment settings
o Attempt to measure either
- ■ Achieved knowledge- particular subjects
- ■ Aptitude or ability to master material in a particular area.
● Intelligence tests o Measure basic ability to understand the world, assimilate to functioning, and apply knowledge to enhance the quality of life.
o Intelligence is a measure of a potential, not a measure of what one has learned (as in an achievement test)
o It is supposed to be independent of culture.
o However, most intelligence are not culturally unaffected.
● Neuropsychological tests o Measure deficits in cognitive functioning- ability to think, speak, reason which may result from brain damage, such as a stroke or a brain injury.
● Occupational tests o Match personal interests and talents with the interests and talents of persons in known careers.
● Personality tests o Measure basic personality style
o Most used in research or forensic settings to help with clinical diagnoses.
o Two of the most well-known personality tests are
- ■ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), or the revised MMPI-2,
- ◊ Composed of several hundred “yes or no” questions
- ■ Rorschach (the “inkblot test”),
- ◊ Composed of several cards of inkblots
- ◊ Clients give a description of the images and feelings experienced by looking at the blots.
● Psychological tests o Administered and interpreted by a psychologist
o Counselors who have appropriate academic courses and supervision may administer occupational tests or achievement and aptitude tests.